Beta-blockers affect the heart and circulation (blood flow through arteries and veins). Propranolol is used to treat tremors, angina (chest pain), hypertension (high blood pressure), heart rhythm disorders, and other heart or circulatory conditions. It is also used to treat or prevent heart attack, and to reduce the severity and frequency of migraine headaches. Hemangeol (propranolol oral liquid 4.28 milligrams) is given to infants who are at least 5 weeks old to treat a genetic condition called infantile hemangiomas. Hemangiomas are caused by blood vessels grouping together in an abnormal way. These blood vessels form benign (non-cancerous) growths that can develop into ulcers or red marks on the skin. Hemangiomas can also cause more serious complications inside the body (in the liver, brain, or digestive system). Β adrenergic receptor antagonists (also called beta-blockers or β-blockers) were initially developed in the 1960s, for the treatment of angina pectoris but are now also used for hypertension, congestive heart failure and certain arrhythmias. In the 1950s, dichloroisoproterenol (DCI) was discovered to be a β-antagonist that blocked the effects of sympathomimetic amines on bronchodilation, uterine relaxation and heart stimulation. Although DCI had no clinical utility, a change in the compound did provide a clinical candidate, pronethalol, which was introduced in 1962. The β-blockers are an immensely important class of drugs due to their high prevalence of use. The discovery of β-blockers reaches back to more than 100 years ago, when early investigators came up with the idea that catecholamines were binding selectively to receptor-like structures and that this was the cause of their pharmacological actions. Ahlquist published a seminal paper concluding his findings, that there were two distinct receptors for catecholamine drugs, and they caused different responses in the heart muscle. These findings were soon to be a foundation for further research into drug development. In the early 1960s, James Black, a Scottish pharmacologist, and associates of his at the Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) in Great Britain were working on a series of β-adrenergic blocking compounds, pronethalol and propranolol. Black focused on developing a drug that would relieve the pain of angina pectoris, which results from oxygen deprivation in the heart. His plan was to create a drug that would decrease the heart’s requirement for oxygen.
Description: Propranolol Hydrochloride is a non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Metabolic and Endocrine Considerations After Burn Injury. It has been shown to be active against disorders including cardiac infarcations, arrhythmias, hypertension, and hyperthyroidism. Med Koo Cat#: 526072 Name: Propranolol Hydrochloride CAS#: 318-98-9 (HCl) Chemical Formula: C16H22Cl NO2 Exact Mass: 295.1339 Molecular Weight: 295.807 Elemental Analysis: C, 64.97; H, 7.50; Cl, 11.98; N, 4.74; O, 10.82 Related CAS #: 525-66-6 (free base) 318-98-9 (HCl) Synonym: Propranolol Hydrochloride IUPAC/Chemical Name: 1-Naphthalen-1-yloxy-3-(propan-2-ylamino)propan-2-ol hydrochloride In Chi Key: ZMRUPTIKESYGQW-UHFFFAOYSA-N In Chi Code: In Ch I=1S/C16H21NO2. Cl H/c1-12(2)17-10-14(18)11-19-16-9-5-7-13-6-3-4-8-15(13)16;/h3-9,12,14,17-18H,10-11H2,1-2H3;1H SMILES Code: OC(CNC(C)C)COC1=C2C=CC=CC2=CC=C1.[H]Cl 1: Kur'yanova EV, Tryasuchev AV, Stupin VO, Teplyi DL. Effect of Stimulation of Neurotransmitter Systems on Heart Rate Variability and β-Adrenergic Responsiveness of Erythrocytes in Outbred Rats. Beta-1 versus beta-2 adrenergic control of coronary blood flow during isometric handgrip exercise in humans. 3: Maman SR, Vargas AF, Ahmad TA, Miller AJ, Gao Z, Leuenberger UA, Proctor DN, Muller MD. A drug used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. Anti-arrhythmia drugs may affect the polarisation-repolarisation phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibres.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol is used in the treatment or prevention of many disorders including acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, angina pectoris, hypertension, hypertensive emergencies, hyperthyroidism, migraine, pheochromocytoma, menopause, and anxiety. While once a first-line treatment for hypertension, the role for beta blockers was downgraded in June 2006 in the United Kingdom to fourth-line, as they do not perform as well as other drugs, particularly in the elderly, and evidence is increasing that the most frequently used beta blockers at usual doses carry an unacceptable risk of provoking type 2 diabetes. Propranolol is not recommended for the treatment of hypertension by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) because a higher rate of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke compared to an angiotensin receptor blocker was noted in one study. Propranolol works to inhibit the actions of norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter that enhances memory consolidation. In one small study individuals given propranolol immediately after trauma experienced fewer stress-related symptoms and lower rates of PTSD than respective control groups who did not receive the drug. Due to the fact that memories and their emotional content are reconsolidated in the hours after they are recalled/re-experienced, propranolol can also diminish the emotional impact of already formed memories; for this reason, it is also being studied in the treatment of specific phobias, such as arachnophobia, dental fear, and social phobia. Ethical and legal questions have been raised surrounding the use of propranolol-based medications for use as a "memory damper", including: altering memory-recalled evidence during an investigation, modifying behavioral response to past (albeit traumatic) experiences, the regulation of these drugs, and others. However, Hall and Carter have argued that many such objections are "based on wildly exaggerated and unrealistic scenarios that ignore the limited action of propranolol in affecting memory, underplay the debilitating impact that PTSD has on those who suffer from it, and fail to acknowledge the extent to which drugs like alcohol are already used for this purpose." Propranolol may be used to treat severe infantile hemangiomas (IHs).
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. 23092397 Propranolol Chemical Structure - Good price for Sildenafil medications Get gifts - free samples pills Levitra or generic Cialis. Full anonymity and secure ordering.