The main jobs of your kidneys are to clean the waste and remove extra water from your blood. They’re part of your urinary tract, which makes pee (urine) and removes it from your body. Like the exhaust system on your car, you want everything in good working order so waste moves in one direction only: out. But if those bacteria travel up the ureters, you can have a much more serious problem: a kidney infection. The urinary tract is made up of your: If any of these parts get bacteria in them, you can get a urinary tract infection (UTI). Doctors sometimes call this “pyelonephritis.” You need to have a kidney infection treated right away. It’s rare, but you can also have an infection that gets in through your skin, makes its way into your blood, then travels to your kidney. If you don’t, it can lead to life-threatening problems. You can get an infection after kidney surgery, too, but that’s very uncommon. But just as women get more bladder infections than men, they also get more kidney infections. Usually, it starts with a bladder infection that spreads to the kidney. A woman’s urethra is shorter than a man’s, and it’s closer to the vagina and anus, where bacteria live. That means it’s easier for bacteria to get into a woman’s urethra, and once they do, it’s a shorter trip to the bladder. Pregnant women are even more likely to get bladder infections because the baby can put pressure on the woman’s ureters and slow the flow of urine. Following a recent APPKG meeting, the Chair Madeleine Moon MP sent a letter to the Rt Hon Matt Hancock MP, Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, regarding living donation manifesto and finally the progress and issues facing the BAME community. Text of letter sent by APPKG Chair Madeleine Moon MP to the Rt Hon Matt Hancock MP, Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, regarding living donation manifesto and finally the progress and issues facing the BAME community. Read more The Kidney Patient Involvement Network (KPIN) is working with NIHR to test their quality standards for patient and public involvement. We have developed an audit questionnaire for patients, carers and public members to complete to capture their experience of being involved in a project (research, quality improvement or service re-design), advisory group or committee. The survey should take 20-30 minutes to complete depending on the length of the answers, and all survey responses will be anonymous, stored safely in a password protected database. The findings from the audit will help us identify what people do well so we can share best practice and improve the quality of patient involvement, develop resources, training and appropriate support. Read more Text of letter sent by APPKG Chair Madeleine Moon MP to the Rt Hon Matt Hancock MP, Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, regarding living donation manifesto and finally the progress and issues facing the BAME community.
Acute liver failure is loss of liver function that occurs rapidly — in days or weeks — usually in a person who has no pre-existing liver disease. Acute liver failure is less common than chronic liver failure, which develops more slowly. Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, can cause serious complications, including excessive bleeding and increasing pressure in the brain. It's a medical emergency that requires hospitalization. Acute liver failure can develop quickly in an otherwise healthy person, and it is life-threatening. If you or someone you know suddenly develops a yellowing of the eyes or skin; tenderness in the upper abdomen; or any unusual changes in mental state, personality or behavior, seek medical attention right away. Our patients tell us that the quality of their interactions, our attention to detail and the efficiency of their visits mean health care like they've never experienced. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. The loss of function may be so slow that you do not have symptoms until your kidneys have almost stopped working. The final stage of CKD is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). At this stage, the kidneys are no longer able to remove enough wastes and excess fluids from the body. At this point, you would need dialysis or a kidney transplant. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the 2 most common causes and account for most cases. Many other diseases and conditions can damage the kidneys, including: Most people will have high blood pressure at all stages of CKD. During an exam, your health care provider may also hear abnormal heart or lung sounds in your chest.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition characterized by a gradual loss of kidney function over time. To read more about kidney function, see How Your Kidneys Work. Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to keep you healthy by doing the jobs listed. If kidney disease gets worse, wastes can build to high levels in your blood and make you feel sick. You may develop complications like high blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Also, kidney disease increases your risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of time. Chronic kidney disease may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and other disorders. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates. They are located on the left and right in the retroperitoneal space, and in adult humans are about 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. Left: cross section at upper abdomen level – the liver is seen on the left side of scan (right side of body). They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Center: longitudinal section though the center of the kidneys – the liver partially covers the right kidney. The kidney is a bean-shaped structure with a convex and a concave border. Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. A recessed area on the concave border is the renal hilum, where the renal artery enters the kidney and the renal vein and ureter leave. The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. The kidney is surrounded by tough fibrous tissue, the renal capsule, which is itself surrounded by perirenal fat, renal fascia, and pararenal fat. Each human adult kidney contains around 1 million nephrons while a mouse kidney contain only about 12,500 nephrons. The anterior (front) surface of these tissues is the peritoneum, while the posterior (rear) surface is the transversalis fascia. In adult males, the kidney weighs between 125 and 170 grams. The kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluid compartments, fluid osmolality, acid-base balance, various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins. The superior pole of the right kidney is adjacent to the liver. In females the weight of the kidney is between 115 and 155 grams.
Lipitor is used to treat high cholesterol. Learn about side effects, interactions and indications. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992 May;515533-40. Alprazolam in end-stage renal disease. II. Pharmacodynamics. Schmith VD1, Piraino B, Smith RB, Kroboth PD.